Within the empirical study of performance information use, one clear finding is that “leadership matters.” But there are significant gaps in understanding how leadership matters and what form of leadership matters. The majority of these indices suggest that the theoretical model accurately captures the pattern of relationships found in the data (CFI = 0.97, GFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.06, CFit = 0.25, and the standardized RMR is 0.03). Leadership Pasadena’s Executive Director, Cynthia Bengtson (left) The Monogrammed Home’s tablescape, in lush summer hues, reflected the company’s penchant for personalization and the personal experience of sharing a table, while the artWORKS display, in moody street tones, brought important social conversations to the table. The central premise of this theory is that leadership can have important but easy-to-miss indirect effects on organizational factors that shape reform outcomes. This emphasis on performance information to learn and improve (rather than to reward and punish) is less threatening to employees. Because the respondents are agency heads, and therefore able to influence information availability, we also specify a relationship between tenure and information availability. The article offers a theory of how leadership affects the implementation of management reforms. However, instead of placing the majority of the energy into each employee’s individual goals, the transformational leader is driven by a commitment to organizational objectives. Although there seems to be sufficient empirical evidence to support the claim that “leadership matters” to performance information use, there have been scant efforts to link this evidence to broader theoretical models of leadership (for an exception, see Dull 2009). Coefficients of determination for endogenous variables can be calculated from figure 2 as one minus the error term for the latent variable (E). Readiness to meet new challenges is important. Consistent with our hypotheses, transformational leadership has substantial direct effects on both goal clarity and developmental culture and, through these relationships, an indirect effect on both reported performance information availability and use. Offered by KSHIFT - Jul 21st 7pm-9pm, 2018: KSHIFT is sponsoring Leadership Pasadena's Setting the Table A BENEFIT AND TABLESCAPE DESIGN … Setting the Table is landmark a motivational work from one of our era’s most gifted and insightful business leaders. According to this distinction, leadership involves a high-level focus on strategy and inspiring. In the first stage, the model performs a confirmatory factor analysis to construct the latent variables from their respective questionnaire items and assesses the validity and reliability of the study measures. External service providers are organizations that provide services to the public (public works, parks, economic development, planning, and community development). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Inc. All rights reserved. For the measure of transformational leadership, our respondents (the heads of city agencies) are not describing their own leadership qualities, but rather assessing the perceived transformational leadership of their supervisor, the city manager. The results here do not imply that the only influence of leadership is indirect. Other scholars, such as Podsakoff et al. The risk is that managers perceive leaders as playing a “gotcha” game, seeking to score political points at the expense of the reputation of the manager (de Haven-Smith and Jenne 2006). In the second stage, the structural equation model subsumes conventional regression and path analysis models to test the hypothesized relationships among the latent variables.5. A key aspect of goal clarification relates to the ability of leaders to emphasize the salience of organizational goals at the expense of narrower individual or subunit goals. In assessing the overall contribution of the article, data and methodological limitations must be balanced against the substantive insights that emerge. Research on transformational leadership suggests that it is a form of leadership especially suited to fostering organizational change, such as the performance reforms we study here (Yukl 2008, 712). Each of the three types of transformational behaviors described above can foster a developmental culture. Traditional leadership styles are still relevant in today's workplace, but they may need to be combined with new approaches in line with how leadership is defined for the 21st century. Obtaining an external review of organizational performance. The standard cautions about generalizing to other levels of government or different contexts apply, as does the usual call for more research to test the underlying theory in other settings. Moynihan and Ingraham (2004) find that senior state executive branch officials are more likely to be influenced by gubernatorial attention to performance management, whereas agency officials will be more influenced by agency leaders. We offer more detail on how we operationalize this conceptualization of performance information use in our discussion of measurement below. In the second stage, the structural equation model subsumes conventional regression and path analysis models to test whether the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships between the latent variables (depicted in figure 1) are consistent with the pattern of relationships found in the data. Table setting at the 2009 CIA Leadership Awards, at Cipriani 42nd Street in New York City on Thursday, March 26, 2009. Factors related to PART performance scores of U.S. federal programs: Goal ambiguity, program size, type, political content, and budget increases. Legislative leadership in performance management seems to elicit lower reported use of performance data among state executive branch officials, who may view such involvement as a means to extend legislative control over agencies (Moynihan and Ingraham 2004). Some organizations have a harder time than others because their functions are more difficult to measure and, hence, have a different quality of performance data available (Radin 2006). Not only could such research make use of well-developed concepts from organizational behavior, such as transformational leadership, it could also test the indirect effects of leadership. We probably have an answer for you. 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