Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. Monument National Camp Vught est situé sur une partie de l’ancien SS-Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, mieux connu comme Camp Vught (janvier 1943-septembre 1944). In total, about 2,000 men and 300 women were imprisoned in this camp. The camp was opened in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Two of the three commandants were tried after the war, but not by Dutch courts. Interrogated by the commandant, no one reported who was responsible for this. Immediately after the liberation in May 1945, RIOD (later NIOD) was founded and started to collect documents about the occupation, among them of course documents concerning the different camps in the Netherlands. Amersfoort got an extremely negative reputation, and the scarce reports about people imprisoned in camps abroad, notably in Germany, suggested even worse conditions. Articles with Dutch-language external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Buildings and structures in North Brabant, Nazi concentration camps in the Netherlands, World War II memorials in the Netherlands, "Shades of Anne Frank in Dutch prison camp diary. The second commander was 40-year-old Adam Grünewald. The first commander of Herzogenbusch was 39-year-old Karl Chmielewski. History. His diary is published as Dagboek geschreven in Vught (Amsterdam, 1977). About one-third of the Philips-Transport prisoners survived. 1921), lived with his family in Amsterdam until he was captured on the night of 11 February 1943 and transported to Vught camp. The family was later tranported to the Groß-Rosen camp (Langenbielau). The Judendurchgangslager opened on January 16, 1943. After the publication of de Jong, it took another de cade before Coenraad Stuldreher, a former NIOD staff member, published a general article, “Deutsche Konzentrationslager in den Niederlanden: Amersfoort, Westerbork,  Herzogenbusch,” DaHe 5 (1989):141–173, the first publication not in the Dutch language. In total, at least 31,000 people had been imprisoned in the camp between January 1943 and September 1944 for shorter or longer durations. The first group of prisoners sent to the Judenauffanglager was about 450 Jews from Amsterdam. of tussenstation (Amsterdam, 1994). Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth, and Christoph Dieckmann (Gottingen, 1998), 1: 327–348. Watchtowers and barbed wire fences in the camp, Herzogenbusch concentration camp (German pronunciation: [hɛɐtsoːgənbuʃ][Stress?]) About two months afterward, however, it was renamed according to its basic function. National Monument Camp Vught (Museum for Concentration Camp Herzogenbusch) Dans la même zone Points de repère. (Dutch language: Kamp Vught, During World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands (1940–1945). Although informative, these publications cannot serve as a solid basis for scholarly research, as they are devoid of fact- checking or source references. David wrote poems in his diary and taught Jewish children in the camp. In this speech, about the specificc qualities of the SS, he did not refrain from calling the camp “an exemplary SS operation” (Musterbetrieb der SS).4. Ce capitaine était connu pour les atrocités qu'il avait commises au camp de Gusen, annexe de Mauthausen. When will we see each other again? (Arolsen, 1979), 1:154–157. I have all my dearest possessions with me: my letters and photos. Par aprè… Large parts of the southern camp buildings are now used by the Dutch military, including the former SS Barracks that is shaped like a German cross. Most of the prisoners were in terrible shape. Detachments where prisoners constructed and repaired airfields (Arnheim, Eindhoven, GilzeRijen [aka Breda], Leeuwarden, and Venlo); Detachments where prisoners worked on coastal defenses (Moerdijk and Roosendaal); Detachments where prisoners performed administrativework on behalf of the Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (’s-Gravenhage, Haaren, and St. Michielsgestel); One detachment where prisoners were deployed for industrial labor (Herzogenbusch). The quality of this hospital was incomparably better than the ones in other concentration camps. Eventually they reached Vught, and liberated the Herzogenbusch concentration camp with the assistance of a Canadian artillery unit - the only Konzentrationslager or concentration camp ever to be built on Dutch soil. In principle, Schutzhaft (protective custody in order to protect state security) could be imposed on all kinds of prisoners: Jews (i.e., those who violated one of the anti- Jewish measures; the so-called Jews qualified for punishment, or straffällige Juden); political prisoners; Jehovah’s Witnesses; “antisocials” (black marketeers, thieves, and others arrested for economic reasons); and criminals (some of them Kapos, coming from Germany). The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. This channel was generated automatically by YouTube's video discovery system. David's mother and brother Max survived the war, but David died during a transport of sick people to Dachau in 1945.[4]. His superiors, unhappy that this tragedy was leaked to the press, brought him before an SS judge and he was sent to the Russian front as a common soldier. Helga Deen (Stettin, Germany, 6 April 1925 – Sobibor, 16 July 1943) was the author of a diary, discovered in 2004, which describes her stay in a Dutch prison camp, Kamp Vught, where she was brought during World War II at the age of 18. The grounds now house an educational museum about the camp (known in Dutch as Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught),[9] a Dutch military base called Van Brederodekazerne, a neighbourhood of Maluku refugees, and a high security prison called Nieuw Vosseveld. Klein and Justus van de Kamp, Het Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught (Amsterdam, 2003). The first camp commandant was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski, who previously served in Sachsenhausen. [citation needed] In January 1944 he ordered that a group of female prisoners was to be put into one cell. A small group of students, however, were transported to Germany for forced labor. He did not survive the war. Most of the prisoners were considered to be important enough for the Germans that they were put in the so-called Bunker, the camp prison. Wanneer zien we elkaar weer? The building of a camp at Herzogenbusch, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. Herzogenbusch was a transit camp; people were not supposed to stay in it for a long time. [10] Central to the prison, the Bunker Tragedy bunker still stands. He was removed in October 1943 for misconduct and later sentenced to 15 years in prison by an SS court. Herzogenbusch était un camp de concentration nazi situé à Vught près de la ville de 's-Hertogenbosch, aux Pays - Bas.Le camp a été ouvert en 1943 et détenait 31 000 prisonniers. The Nazis transported Jewish and other prisoners from the Netherlands via the transit camps Amersfoort and Westerbork to concentration camps such as Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. The same day, about 450 Jews arrived from Amsterdam (mainly “armament Jews,” or Rustungsjuden). Rauter refused, claiming that the staff at his disposal was inadequate for this transfer.3. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught). 250gg (Vught II). Ils provenaient d'Amersfoort et étaient dans un état pitoyable. During 's-Hertogenbosch. Among other things, he was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners in August and September 1944 and for the evacuation transports afterward. Two transports, on November 15, 1943, and June 3, 1944, went straight to Auschwitz. [7], The last commander of Herzogenbusch was 50-year-old Hans Hüttig. Herzogenbusch became known as one of the few concentration camps located outside the Reich territory (Reichsgebiet). As far as the archival situation is concerned, a serious drawback is the fact that none of the three camp commandants was tried in the Netherlands. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. Le commandant du camp était le capitaine SS Karl Chmilewski. [8], The camp was partially demolished after the war. At that time, Louis de Jong, the former NIOD director who published a 14- volume series about the general history of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in World War II, devoted one of his volumes completely to the Nazi prisons and camps. Tot ziens. This level implied, among other things, that the non-Jewish prisoners were permitted (censored) correspondence and the receipt of food parcels. [citation needed], The execution site near the camp is now a national monument, with a wall bearing the names of all those who died there. Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Netherlands.Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camps in western Europe outside of Germany.The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The women and children stayed in the Frauenkonzentrationslager. Dans le centre de mémoire on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l’espace de recueillement et le mur de réaction. Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camps in western Europe outside of Germany. Although his conspicuously rude behavior initially did not seem to have raised Rauter’s objections, he was sacked in October 1943 because of misconduct (and even sentenced by an SS court in Berlin to 15 years’ imprisonment). The main camp, the Schutzhaftlager, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch’s existence. He did not want it to be a police transit or extended police camp (Polizeiliches Durchgangslager or Erweitertes Polizeilager) like Amersfoort, or a Judendurchgangslager like Westerbork. Moreover, hardly any facilities were provided in the beginning. In reprisal, about 600 students and 1,200 sons of upper- class families (Plutokraten-Söhnchen) were arrested at the beginning of February and transferred to Herzogenbusch. Investigations of the German police indicated that students and people from better-off circles took part in these actions. Later he enlarged this article into “Das Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch—Ein ‘Musterbetrieb der SS?’ ” in Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager—Entwicklung und Struktur, ed. Herzogenbusch concentration camp. Herzogenbusch, located in The Netherlands, was the only official concentration camp in western Europe located outside of Germany. Usually, the transports to Poland went through Westerbork. [2], Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. Until 1978, only memoirs of former prisoners, usually of a highly personal character, had been published. Consequently, 74 women were collectively punished by putting them in one cell in the bunker for 14 hours; 10 women did not survive. In the beginning of December 1942, Rauter’s superior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, following Rauter’s regular updates, ordered that Herzogenbusch had to be considered an “official” concentration camp, in other words, a camp under direct supervision of the Berlin offices of the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA). The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. The camp premises were liberated on October 26, 1944. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Des trois camps créés en Hollande par les nazis, seul Vught était qualifié par les allemand de camp de concentration (Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch). 749 prisonniers sont morts dans le camp, et les autres ont été transférés dans d'autres camps peu de temps avant la libération du camp par les forces alliées en 1944. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The general conclusion of the survey was that the local population had a basic knowledge of the camp and that the people of Vught were apparently involved in the fate of the prisoners. View the list of all donors. During the first few months, the camp was poorly run: prisoners didn't receive meals, the sick were barely treated, and the quality of drinking water was very low. Imprisonment in Herzogenbusch distinguished itself not only in quantitative but also in qualitative terms. However, the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary kept by prisoner David Koker, a 22-year-old student. Chmilewski was succeeded by Adam Grünewald (October 1943) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. About 12,000 people (11,000 men and 1,000 women) were quartered in this camp for periods ranging from less than a month to more than a year. Herzogenbusch concentration camp Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: Nazi concentration camp, military museum, Ilag: Named after 's-Hertogenbosch ; Vught ; Location: Vught, North Brabant, Netherlands : Said to be the same as: Vught: 51° 39′ 56.99″ N, 5° 15′ 24.01″ E: Authority control Q153713 GND ID: 4028140-1 NKCR AUT ID: zmp2018978407. Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp, Vught, The Netherlands. The camp was made up of several largely independent sections for different kinds of prisoners: the “protective custody” camp (Schutzhaftlager, including the women’s concentration camp, or Frauenkonzentrationslager); the Judendurchgangslager; the students’ camp (Studentenlager); the hostage camp (Geisellager); a Polizeiliches Durchgangslager; and a Security Service camp (Sicherheitsdienst-Lager, or SDLager). About 30,000 inmates passed through the camp of which about 12,000 were Jews. It did not stop them from being transported, but actually did protect them during their deportation to Auschwitz. In this publication some 70 pages are dedicated to Herzogenbusch. The remaining prisoners, all hostages, were set free or transferred to the Amersfoort camp. Pohl thereupon requested Himmler to take Herzogenbusch away from the WVHA and to charge Rauter with final responsibility for the camp. Under his regime, a punishment company (Strafkompanie) was set up; partly because of this, the practice of beating up prisoners increased. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing In 1961, a German court sentenced Chmielewski to life imprisonment. In the end, the camp took up 300,000 square meters (359,000 square yards) and consisted of 36 barracks for living, sleeping, and working. In this way they clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners. Worth mentioning are the transport of about 90 prisoners, including some very well known resistance fighters, to the concentration camp Natzweiler at the beginning of July 1943 and the transport of about 800 prisoners to Dachau in May 1944. The second group did not enter the camp before October 1943. On 2 June 1944 he and his family were transported by train to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The most probable reasons for this decision have to be found in Rauter’s concerns about the tempo and effectiveness of the deportation of the Jews from Westerbork—in principle, about 120,000 people eventually were deported—and the obvious malfunctioning of the already existing camp at Amersfoort, which proved to be too small and which had a notorious reputation for its harsh regime. A French court gave Huttig the same punishment, but he was released in 1956. Herzogenbusch was a Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught] remembering the camp together with its victims. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. From May 1943 on, the supply of food parcels was taken over by the Dutch Red Cross. Rauter was very keen on maintaining this so-called high level quality and is said to have inspected the site three or four times. I think a lot about you. Afterward, the Wehrmacht took over the facility and used it as a prisoner-of-war (POW) camp before handing it over to the Dutch Red Cross. Vol 1, Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA), ed. Geoffrey Megargee. The food provided was poor, and drinkable water was rare. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was one of the three German concentration camps in the Netherlands during the Second World War. Like the other prisoners, the Jews were put to work in different internal and external detachments (Innen-und Aussenkommandos). 51°39′57″N 5°15′32″E / 51.66583°N 5.25889°E51.66583; 5.25889. Fortunately, not everything went into the flames. Apart from Jews these included, amongst others, Roma (gypsies), resistance activists and Jehovah’s witnesses. This incident took place on the night of January 15–16, 1944. Most of these sections did not exist through the full period when Herzogenbusch was active. The camp itself, formally set up on January 5, 1943,2 started to function on January 13, 1943, with the arrival of about 250 male prisoners (including Jews) from the Amersfoort camp. See his Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, vol. After the war, the camp was used as a prison for Germans and for Dutch collaborators. Grunewald was never tried; he died in combat in 1945 in Hungary. The crematorium, the fence and a ditch dug by the prisoners are all authentic. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. About 1,350 male prisoners came from abroad, mostly from Belgium and, to a lesser extent, from France. In the late 1960s, a survey, by no means representative, was conducted of the inhabitants of the municipality of Vught, aged around 65 years, concerning their state of knowledge of the neighboring camp. Information about the opening and closing dates of the main camp and subcamps, the type of prisoners, and prisoner labor can be found in the ITS, Verzeichnis der Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer- SS (1933–1945), 2 vols. ... Heel veel liefs jongens, bedankt voor alles. The camp had a crematorium but not a gas chamber. However, apart from the usual harassment, working conditions for them were much harder. In general, it can be stated that because of the food supply and working conditions, life in the Hauptlager was less difficult than in the subcamps. The crematorium, the rebuilt barrack and the monument to Het is wel teleurstellend, maar we waren erop voorbereid en zijn vol vertrouwen. It remained active until the larger camp was dissolved. M'n liefste bezit. Goodbye. Bloomington: Indiana University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009. in’t Veld, ed., De SS en Nederland (’s Gravenhage, 1979). Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. [3] At first, they were guarded by allied soldiers, but shortly after by the Dutch. Although it can well be argued that the Herzogenbusch regime did not match the level of cruelty of the other concentration camps, this does not take away from the camp’s notorious record, notably during the first half-year of its existence. After her last diary entry, in early July 1943, Helga Deen was deported to Sobibór extermination camp and murdered. Experience the history and the current importance of the former SS camp Vught. Because of the advance of the Allied forces through France and Belgium, the prisoners of the Schutzhaftlager, the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, the SD- Lager, and the Frauenkonzentrationslager were transported, on September 5 and 6, 1944, to camps in Germany. A small part of this former SS concentration camp houses the Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp Museum. Prior to Grünewald’s arrival, prisoners were allowed to maintain a school and engage in religious and cultural ac… During this period, it held nearly 31,000 prisoners: Jews, political prisoners, resistance fighters, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, homeless people, black market traders, criminals, and hostages. The treatment of the prisoners would be, as Rauter put it in his trial after the war, “severe, but fair” (streng, aber gerecht). After a couple of weeks, almost all of them were released. After the last, the above-mentioned Philips-Transport, the camp was closed. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). Herzogenbusch concentration camp ( ) (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands.Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. Nieuw Vosseveld 360 mètres au sud-ouest; Fort Isabella fort, 2 km au nord-est; Stedelijk Museum 's-Hertogenbosch musée, 3 km au nord-est; Stadhuis 's-Hertogenbosch site historique, 4 km au nord-est; Autres lieux. It is disappointing, but we were prepared and full of faith. Vught, small German Nazi concentration camp in the town of Vught, 2 miles (3 km) south of the city of Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Neth. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. The museum consists of an indoor and an outdoor area. People from this group of prisoners were executed in August and September 1944. . Chmielewski and Huttig were tried outside the Netherlands. The only penal records are available for minor perpetrators. Because of the trial’s importance, its complete text was published in 1952. Because their work (with diamonds and textiles) was important for German interests, they believed themselves protected against deportation and thus remained under the illusion that they would stay in the camp. Operation Pheasant-Wikipedia. About 2,900 men went to Sachsenhausen, while about 650 women were sent to Ravensbruck. A second transport—some 2,000 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later. This diary runs from February 11, 1943, through February 8, 1944. In February 1943, the Geisellager was set up. 210, BDC; Coll. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. Although certainly not as tough as his predecessors, Huttig was said to have exerted power from behind his desk. . 8 (’s-Gravenhage, 1978). The prisoners’ first task was to build the barracks, which was, given the shape they were in, a very strenuous job. Grunewald died in action. She was 18 years old.[5][6]. He was killed in battle in 1945. A few hundred hostages were locked up, generally for not longer than a couple of months. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. By the beginning of October 1943, this was the fate of more than 10,000 people. 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