Long before the modern military alphabet was created, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) had created the first spelling alphabet to be internationally recognized. Among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants (/b, d, g/) and aspirated plosives (/pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/) in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. It is the Latin alphabet that forms the basis of most European alphabets. This block also supports the Coptic alphabet. [32] Standardized formal transcription systems have been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 843),[32][33] by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names,[34] by the Library of Congress,[35] and others. Get your … These signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. In Phoenician, each letter name was a word that began with the sound represented by that letter; thus ʾaleph, the word for "ox", was used as the name for the glottal stop /ʔ/, bet, or "house", for the /b/ sound, and so on. [59] The Greek letter names of most fraternal organizations today are meaningless and do not stand for anything,[59] which Caroline Winterer states is "understandable, considering that general knowledge of the ancient Greek alphabet and language has almost entirely vanished. Students can learn the letters of the Greek alphabet and sentence structure, as well as familiarize themselves with the sounds of Greek.. Omniglot – This site specializes in providing information about languages and their alphabets and writing systems.. Hello … When the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, they took over not only the letter shapes and sound values, but also the names by which the sequence of the alphabet could be recited and memorized. Sometimes, both lower case and capitals are employed for simplification. The United States Military relies on the NATO phonetic alphabet code covering letters A to Z (26 in all). The Greek alphabet went through several changes. [citation needed]. simply "accent"), marking the stressed syllable of polysyllabic words, and occasionally the diaeresis to distinguish diphthongal from digraph readings in pairs of vowel letters, making this monotonic system very similar to the accent mark system used in Spanish. The phonetic alphabet is a list of words used to identify letters in a message transmitted by radio, telephone, and encrypted messages. The date of the earliest inscribed objects; A.W. The Greek alphabet only has 24 letters … [6] Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Mathematics and Science use Greek letters like, Some books in English are numbered using the letters of the Greek alphabet. The Roman alphabet has a similar extended form with such double-digit letters when necessary, but it is used for columns in a table or chart rather than chapters of an organization. Alpha / ˈ æ l f ə / (uppercase Α, lowercase α; Ancient Greek: ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 1.. The Greeks adopted the alphabet from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, one of the closely related scripts used for the West Semitic languages, calling it Φοινικήια γράμματα 'Phoenician letters'. Thus, you may find that the books of the ". Take 26 flashcards, write the letter on one side, and the corresponding Military Alphabet term on the other. MILITARY ALPHABET The military alphabet, or more properly the phonetic alphabet, exists in innumerable variants. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent, and thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech ever since. Its not military, its just Greek. There are two main blocks of Greek characters in Unicode. [39] The "blue" (or eastern) type is the one from which the later standard Greek alphabet emerged. There were initially numerous local (epichoric) variants of the Greek alphabet, which differed in the use and non-use of the additional vowel and consonant symbols and several other features. [41] Roughly thirty years later, the Eucleidean alphabet was adopted in Boeotia and it may have been adopted a few years previously in Macedonia. It is the Latin alphabet that forms the basis of most European alphabets. In the tables below, the Greek names of all letters are given in their traditional polytonic spelling; in modern practice, like with all other words, they are usually spelled in the simplified monotonic system. Like Latin and other alphabetic scripts, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter, without a distinction between uppercase and lowercase. During the Renaissance, western printers adopted the minuscule letter forms as lowercase printed typefaces, while modelling uppercase letters on the ancient inscriptional forms. A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, article by Roger D. Woodward (ed. May 21, 2020 - Explore Dennis Mena's board "Greek alphabet" on Pinterest. Military Alphabet Memorization Tips: Flash Cards – Don’t reinvent the wheel. Sigma. Here too, the changes in the pronunciation of the letter names between Ancient and Modern Greek are regular. Between Ancient and Modern Greek, they have remained largely unchanged, except that their pronunciation has followed regular sound changes along with other words (for instance, in the name of beta, ancient /b/ regularly changed to modern /v/, and ancient /ɛː/ to modern /i/, resulting in the modern pronunciation vita). From the sciences to fraternities to literature the Greek … Capital: Low-case: Greek Name: English: Alpha: a: Beta: b: Gamma: g: Delta: d: Epsilon: e: Zeta: z: Eta The orthographic practice of using the letter case distinction for marking proper names, titles etc. Stay safe and healthy. Chinese Alphabet . [36] However, the Phoenician alphabet is limited to consonants. Xo (ix-oh) [was Exo] Yoba [was Yaba] Zeda. /aːi, ɛːi, ɔːi/), which became monophthongized during antiquity. Phonetisches Alphabet Nato Phonetic Alphabet Alphabet Charts Graffiti Alphabet Alphabet Pictures Phonics Good To Know Spelling Sentences More information ... More ideas for you Beta. The most recent Greek hurricane is Hurricane Iota. The letter rho (ρ), although not a vowel, also carries a rough breathing in word-initial position. Cryllic Alphabet The early history of these letters (and the fourth sibilant letter, obsolete san) has been a matter of some debate. [2] The period between the use of the two writing systems, during which no Greek texts are attested, is known as the Greek Dark Ages. Five were reassigned to denote vowel sounds: the glide consonants /j/ (yodh) and /w/ (waw) were used for [i] (Ι, iota) and [u] (Υ, upsilon) respectively; the glottal stop consonant /ʔ/ (aleph) was used for [a] (Α, alpha); the pharyngeal /ʕ/ (ʿayin) was turned into [o] (Ο, omicron); and the letter for /h/ (he) was turned into [e] (Ε, epsilon). It is derived from the Phoenician letter aleph - an ox.. [39][40] In the Old Attic alphabet, ΧΣ stood for /ks/ and ΦΣ for /ps/. The correspondences are as follows: Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the radical simplification of the vowel system of post-classical Greek, merging multiple formerly distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number. When the letters were adopted by the Greeks, most of the Phoenician names were maintained or modified slightly to fit Greek phonology; thus, ʾaleph, bet, gimel became alpha, beta, gamma. The Greek alphabet is widely used to demote various constants and values within the scientific and technology arenas. While their use in normal typography of Greek is purely a matter of font styles, some such variants have been given separate encodings in Unicode. It is used to represent time constant and angular phase displacement. The direction of writing in the oldest Greek inscriptions—as in the Semitic scripts—is from right to left, a style that was superseded by the boustrophedon (meaning, in Greek, “as the ox draws the plow”), in which lines run alternately from right to left and left to right. 1 1? A doublet of waw was also borrowed as a consonant for [w] (Ϝ, digamma). The Chalcidian alphabet was very possibly the forerunner of the Etruscan alphabet and, later, the Latin alphabet. If a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing (ῤῥ) leading to the transliteration rrh. The true … That's the Greek Alphabet. [27] The form in which classical Greek names are conventionally rendered in English goes back to the way Greek loanwords were incorporated into Latin in antiquity. During the Mycenaean period, from around the sixteenth century to the twelfth century BC, Linear B was used to write the earliest attested form of the Greek language, known as Mycenaean Greek. The Chalcidian alphabet was very possibly the forerunner of the Etruscan alphabet and, later, the Latin alphabet. Flash cards do not take very long make, and will remain a helpful reference as you learn. If any one variant can be viewed as “most correct”, it is the current NATO standard military alphabet. The glyph shapes used for these letters in specialized phonetic fonts is sometimes slightly different from the conventional shapes in Greek typography proper, with glyphs typically being more upright and using serifs, to make them conform more with the typographical character of other, Latin-based letters in the phonetic alphabet. This writing system, unrelated to the Greek alphabet, last appeared in the thirteenth century BC. This system has remained in use in Greek up to the present day, although today it is only employed for limited purposes such as enumerating chapters in a book, similar to the way Roman numerals are used in English. The greeks have only been used twice for a total of 15 storms, the seasons being 2005 and 2020. [59] The name of this fraternal organization is an acronym for the ancient Greek phrase Φιλοσοφία Βίου Κυβερνήτης (Philosophia Biou Kybernētēs), which means "Love of wisdom, the guide of life" and serves as the organization's motto. They were restricted to the function of short vowel signs in classical Greek, as the long vowels. In analogy to ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩, ⟨γκ⟩ is also used to stand for [g]. In addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal [ŋ]; thus ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are pronounced like English ⟨ng⟩. [38], The "green" (or southern) type is the most archaic and closest to the Phoenician. As in so many other things, the importance of the ancient Greeks in the history of the alphabet is paramount. In the following group of consonant letters, the older forms of the names in Ancient Greek were spelled with -εῖ, indicating an original pronunciation with -ē. Omega. The Greek achievement was to provide representations for vowel sounds. For chi and beta, separate codepoints for use in a Latin-script environment were added in Unicode versions 7.0 (2014) and 8.0 (2015) respectively: U+AB53 "Latin small letter chi" (ꭓ) and U+A7B5 "Latin small letter beta" (ꞵ). Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases. Ε was used for all three sounds /e, eː, ɛː/ (correspondinɡ to classical Ε, ΕΙ, Η respectively), and Ο was used for all of /o, oː, ɔː/ (corresponding to classical Ο, ΟΥ, Ω respectively). "[59], Different chapters within the same fraternity are almost always (with a handful of exceptions) designated using Greek letters as serial numbers. Such handwriting has been preserved especially from papyrus manuscripts in Egypt since the Hellenistic period. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Military Alphabet (alpha bravo charlie delta echo) What is now known as the military … Eventually, a seventh vowel letter for the long /ɔː/ (Ω, omega) was introduced. Epichoric alphabets are commonly divided into four major types according to their different treatments of additional consonant letters for the aspirated consonants (/pʰ, kʰ/) and consonant clusters (/ks, ps/) of Greek. [23] The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for [b] and [d] (or [mb] and [nd]) respectively; ⟨τζ⟩ stands for [dz] and ⟨τσ⟩ stands for [t͡s]. The Greek alphabet. In the late ninth century BC or early eighth century BC, the Greek alphabet emerged. Several Greek letters are used as phonetic symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). 1 decade ago. [46] This minuscule style remained the dominant form of handwritten Greek into the modern era. For example, the brightest star in the constellation of Centaurus is known as Alpha Centauri. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. As such, 'A' becomes 'Alpha', 'B' becomes 'Bravo, 'C' becomes 'Charlie' and so on. The ninth letter of the Greek alphabet, iota (ιώτα) is written as Ι in uppercase and ι in lowercase. Modern Greek is written in the Greek alphabet, which has 24 letters, each with a capital and lowercase (small) form. [59] This naming tradition was initiated by the foundation of the Phi Beta Kappa Society at the College of William and Mary in 1776. Besides the upright, straight inscriptional forms (capitals) found in stone carvings or incised pottery, more fluent writing styles adapted for handwriting on soft materials were also developed during antiquity. Formerly, most Coptic letters shared codepoints with similar-looking Greek letters; but in many scholarly works, both scripts occur, with quite different letter shapes, so as of Unicode 4.1, Coptic and Greek were disunified. As a consequence, the spellings of words in Modern Greek are often not predictable from the pronunciation alone, while the reverse mapping, from spelling to pronunciation, is usually regular and predictable. Armenian Alphabet . [11] The letter ⟨ε⟩ was called e psilon ("plain e") to distinguish it from the identically pronounced digraph ⟨αι⟩, while, similarly, ⟨υ⟩, which at this time was pronounced [y], was called y psilon ("plain y") to distinguish it from the identically pronounced digraph ⟨οι⟩. It also can be used for Atlantic hurricanes if the normal list runs out. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the fifth century BC and today. Greek also introduced three new consonant letters for its aspirated plosive sounds and consonant clusters: Φ (phi) for /pʰ/, Χ (chi) for /kʰ/ and Ψ (psi) for /ps/. This version of the military […] By around 350 BC, zeta in the Attic dialect had shifted to become a single fricative, Epsilon ⟨ε⟩ and omicron ⟨ο⟩ originally could denote both short and long vowels in pre-classical archaic Greek spelling, just like other vowel letters. [57] Several of them denote fricative consonants; the rest stand for variants of vowel sounds. Modern Greek pronunciation is probably more similar to New Testament Greek pronunciation than Erasmian is, but not identical. The NATO phonetic alphabet is a Spelling Alphabet, a set of words used instead of letters in oral communication (i.e. For computer usage, a variety of encodings have been used for Greek online, many of them documented in .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}RFC 1947. Glossary of ancient Greek military terms. The vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the so-called iota subscript, which has the shape of a small vertical stroke or a miniature ⟨ι⟩ below the letter. Modern and Ancient Greek also use different diacritics. Write it out – Try … In most constellations, the brightest star is designated Alpha and the next brightest Beta etc. [46] The cursive forms approached the style of lowercase letter forms, with ascenders and descenders, as well as many connecting lines and ligatures between letters. [32] These differ widely, depending on their purpose, on how close they stay to the conventional letter correspondences of Ancient Greek-based transcription systems, and to what degree they attempt either an exact letter-by-letter transliteration or rather a phonetically-based transcription. The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. Before the fifth century BCE, there were two similar Greek alphabets, the Ionic and Chalcidian. [27] The letters ⟨θ⟩ and ⟨φ⟩ are generally rendered as ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ph⟩; ⟨χ⟩ as either ⟨ch⟩ or ⟨kh⟩; and word-initial ⟨ρ⟩ as ⟨rh⟩.[31]. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic. To write polytonic Greek, one may use combining diacritical marks or the precomposed characters in the "Greek Extended" block (U+1F00 to U+1FFF). The Euboean alphabet was used by the Greeks who lived in the cities of Chalkis and Eretria beginning in the early years of Greek antiquity. Rego. The symbol in Americanist phonetic notation for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is the Greek letter lambda ⟨λ⟩, but ⟨ɬ⟩ in the IPA. The Greek alphabet was developed about 1000 BCE, based on the Phoenician's North Semitic Alphabet. over the phone or military radio). There are some scholarly books which attempt to reconstruct the original pronunciation of New Testament Greek, and they have reached the point that there seems to be fairly widespread agreement on the original … A spelling alphabet, word-spelling alphabet, voice procedure alphabet, radio alphabet, or telephone alphabet is a set of words used to stand for the letters of an alphabet in oral communication. For example, the letter D has a word Delta. The following group of vowel letters were originally called simply by their sound values as long vowels: ē, ō, ū, and ɔ. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. Chilo (chee-loh) Delta. [41][42] Because of Eucleides's role in suggesting the idea to adopt the Ionian alphabet, the standard twenty-four-letter Greek alphabet is sometimes known as the "Eucleidean alphabet". In the cases of the three historical sibilant letters below, the correspondence between Phoenician and Ancient Greek is less clear, with apparent mismatches both in letter names and sound values. Egbert J. Bakker, 2010, Wiley-Blackwell). This system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium (c. 257 – c. 185/180 BC), who worked at the Musaeum in Alexandria during the third century BC. In the classical Ionian system, the first nine letters of the alphabet stood for the numbers from 1 to 9, the next nine letters stood for the multiples of 10, from 10 to 90, and the next nine letters stood for the multiples of 100, from 100 to 900. The origin of these letters is a matter of some debate. While it looks different, it is actually the forebear of all European alphabets. The Greek alphabet went through several changes. This was called the ITU Radiotelephonic or Phonetic Alphabet, and it was adopted by the ITU in 1927.Several changes were made to the original version of the spelling alphabet in 1932. [11], Some dialects of the Aegean and Cypriot have retained long consonants and pronounce [ˈɣamːa] and [ˈkapʰa]; also, ήτα has come to be pronounced [ˈitʰa] in Cypriot.[45]. Like all ISO-8859 encodings, it is equal to ASCII for 00–7F (hex). The first is "Greek and Coptic" (U+0370 to U+03FF). Greek was originally written predominantly from right to left, just like Phoenician, but scribes could freely alternate between directions. Meanwhile, Athens adopted the Ionic alphabet; as a result, it is still used in modern Greece. Introduction To Ancient Greek by the Open University – This Open University Tutorial provides students with a nice introduction to Ancient Greek. In Modern Greek these names are spelled with -ι. Iota. The eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, Theta (θήτα) is written as Θ in uppercase and θ in lowercase. [29] Smooth breathing marks are usually ignored and rough breathing marks are usually rendered as the letter ⟨h⟩. In other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek. Unicode supports polytonic orthography well enough for ordinary continuous text in modern and ancient Greek, and even many archaic forms for epigraphy. Three of the original Phoenician letters dropped out of use before the alphabet took its classical shape: the letter Ϻ (san), which had been in competition with Σ (sigma) denoting the same phoneme /s/; the letter Ϙ (qoppa), which was redundant with Κ (kappa) for /k/, and Ϝ (digamma), whose sound value /w/ dropped out of the spoken language before or during the classical period. Johnston, "The alphabet", in N. Stampolidis and V. Karageorghis, eds, Additionally, the more ancient combination ⟨. [24] Aristophanes of Byzantium also was the first to divide poems into lines, rather than writing them like prose, and also introduced a series of signs for textual criticism. The Greek alphabet was the model for various others:[6], The Armenian and Georgian alphabets are almost certainly modeled on the Greek alphabet, but their graphic forms are quite different.[48]. In some environments, they are devoiced to [af], [ef] and [if] respectively. In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called "breathing marks": the rough breathing (ἁ), marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, or the smooth breathing (ἀ), marking its absence. The use of both vowels and consonants makes Greek the first alphabet in the narrow sense,[6] as distinguished from the abjads used in Semitic languages, which have letters only for consonants.[37]. Each word ("code word") stands for its initial lette r (alphabetical "symbol"). [38] These four types are often conventionally labelled as "green", "red", "light blue" and "dark blue" types, based on a colour-coded map in a seminal 19th-century work on the topic, Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets by Adolf Kirchhoff (1867). In addition, the Phoenician letter for the emphatic glottal /ħ/ (heth) was borrowed in two different functions by different dialects of Greek: as a letter for /h/ (Η, heta) by those dialects that had such a sound, and as an additional vowel letter for the long /ɛː/ (Η, eta) by those dialects that lacked the consonant. Toco. On the other hand, the following phonetic letters have Unicode representations separate from their Greek alphabetic use, either because their conventional typographic shape is too different from the original, or because they also have secondary uses as regular alphabetic characters in some Latin-based alphabets, including separate Latin uppercase letters distinct from the Greek ones. Everything from resistivity, through to impedance, permeance and ratios of circles and much more. 2300 AD uses the NATO alphabet as Reporting Names for Kafer small craft and missiles, but not for starships, which use the Greek alphabet. [11] Similarly, iota is sometimes spelled γιώτα in Modern Greek ([ʝ] is conventionally transcribed ⟨γ{ι,η,υ,ει,οι}⟩ word-initially and intervocalically before back vowels and /a/). In addition to the four mentioned above (⟨ει, αι, οι, υι,⟩), there is also ⟨ηι, ωι⟩, and ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/. Consider the … The phonetic alphabet can also be signaled with flags, lights, and Morse Code. Iota (eye-oh-tah) Jutta [better? In English, the noun "alpha" is used as a synonym for "beginning", or "first" (in a series), … Alphabet Printable Worksheets can be used for the consonant /h/ express vowels methods of rendering Greek text or names... Constellations, the brightest star is designated Alpha and the corresponding military alphabet hurricanes the... To exist in antiquity are majuscule forms in some environments, they devoiced. Vowel letters denoting identical sounds today `` green '' ( U+0370 to U+03FF.. Lower ranked letter `` the alphabet is paramount also carries a rough breathing are! Certain consonants were adapted to express vowels plus vowels made a writing system, unrelated to historical. It was commonly used by any person at home for instructing and studying objective and National Geographic for Ancient. 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In European languages today are directly or indirectly related to the function of short vowel signs in Greek. A Companion to the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek, and consonants “ correct! Hand-Washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times indirectly... Latin and Cyrillic scripts other western languages of using the letters of Phoenician for writing Greek, and so.. Are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names of the earliest inscribed objects ;.! The phonetic alphabet code covering letters a to Z ( 26 in all capitals, three scripts... In all ) in some environments, they are devoiced to [ af,... The complete list of words is listed below in alphabetical order establishes a B chapter, and forth... Evolved individually and in groups over time to represent time constant and angular phase displacement used in modern Ancient... 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