from application/vnd.adobe.illustrator to application/vnd.adobe.illustrator xmp.iid:FE7F117407206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD saved NTqYYMcskzUIizsTt8LLKEDI0OadN5ROn+cl8u69dJYqs/pXF4jJIiLUgSN8a8VIFfi3A3p2zVR7 xmp.iid:6D3AC4F3B620681195FEEB4062FDEC58 Pasteurisation is used to reduce the microbial counts in milk for cheesemaking, and cream is pasteurised prior to tempering for buttermaking in some factories. ��e���jO�=��&���O�>���>�M-�!�U���(d&C�R�y5쥢i����ioU����G�C#�2ړ��}�ɯe-�O�? Naturally soured milk is used to make many products, e.g. f/yWsH/bTg/5NTZtex/77/NP6HH1X0PkrOpdaiNOhtZ7+3gupTBbSyKk04oeCsaF9yB8PXrlGpnO xmp.iid:0B9FED35200A11689FE8CB9EA85C5459 In smallholder buttermaking, bacterial contamination can come from unclean surfaces, the butter maker and wash water. xmp.did:6E3AC4F3B620681195FEEB4062FDEC58 / uuid:5D20892493BFDB11914A8590D31508C8 Adobe Illustrator CS4 2013-10-31T14:12:16Z xmp.iid:F97F117407206811ACAFB8DA80854E76 ta0PjTNdqMf5fNQ34SCPvboS44e9hGt/841eTLLRr+8j1fWmktraWZFe5gKlo0LAMBANtt8zMfa2 1OT0ZXWFlaW1xdXl9WZ2hpamtsbW5vY3R1dnd4eXp7fH1+f3OEhYaHiImKi4yNjo+Ck5SVlpeYmZ Adobe Illustrator CS4 saved Adobe Illustrator CS4 As with other factors, pH usually interacts with other parameters in the food to inhibit growth. Factors affecting microbial growth in food (a) Intrinsic factors: These are inherent in the food. saved / saved Ross, G. D. 1981. Food associated microorganisms are affected by 2 types of factors: Intrinsic factors :Includes physicochemical properties of food such as, Nutrients. saved 8tzbwPI6yzceZMrlzXiFHfLdTqDlnxFhCAiKDIcoZuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2K 76 saved xmp.iid:B433668C16206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD xmp.iid:07C3BD25102DDD1181B594070CEB88D9 Some pathogenic forms of microorganisms are found in milk, which can cause serious illness. converted / This inhibits clustering of the fat globules and consequently reduces the extent of creaming. LIxZiEUKtSd9lAGbzFhhjjwwAjHuG3Pc/a48pEmy61urm0nWe2leCdK8JY2KsKgg0I3Gxxy4oZI8 / obHwFMHR4SNCFVJicvEzJDRDghaSUyWiY7LCB3PSNeJEgxdUkwgJChgZJjZFGidkdFU38qOzwygp If the milk is not cooled and is stored in the shade at an average air temperature of 16°C, the temperature of the milk will only have fallen to 28°C after 3 hours. IJhtQ+9sIycIrmxPzCf+chvIelyeY7zzBZa5ptoUN9ZsgPwFgoO8UL8atvwcHMnF+UzS4BExJ5fi Coliforms are generally only present in food that has been fecally or environmentally contaminated. saved 2008-05-15T23:07:07-07:00 xV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV/9k= (v) Lipolytic Microorganisms: Some of the microorganisms produce enzyme (lipases) which split milk fat to glycerol and fatty acids. Aust. The product is virtually sterile. Batch pasteurisation is used where milk quantities are too small to justify the use of a plate heat-exchanger. / h+Y8izr8tvzI/wAbQ38n6HutJ+otGvG6/wB2eqGNV2X7PDfMLV6Xwa9Qlfc2Y8nF0pmeYjY7FXYq S6XFM8RP9UNUMmSQ2HxZnqFn+flx5V0C2sL6ys/MbNdHXr6VYGiVRL/owUCOVd4+vGP55iRlpROR converted xmp.iid:F07F117407206811A46CA4519D24356B xmp.iid:FD7F117407206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD Similar care is required with scotch hands and butterworking equipment. / Adobe Illustrator CS4 / FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYq7FXYqx3z1560XyVoq Factors affecting microbial growth in food • Intrinsic Factors • Environmental Factors • Implicit Factors • Processing Factors . Adobe Illustrator CS4 Packaging materials, cups and leaves are also sources of contaminants. cKgUoFFNyO22ZWHQxyaiUOUIsJ5jGAPUoVfLH/OS31RNUj82WL3siCRtMaKIIKgH0w3oGPl2qP8A J Am Vet Med Assoc. converted xmp.iid:FC7F117407206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD image/jpeg Microorganisms that survive pasteurisation are putrefactive. 5o/mrZ+QItNe50+XUDqTypGsLqhUxBD3BrX1Mx9HoznujVM8uUQYZ/0Mx/35uqf5/wCwzL/kn+nF / Written by: Tyler Lacoma. Yvlr8otM1m6Menea3vFttQVY45EArMNlPqp8Sxq1R9GQ0umxZM5iN4Vt9ick5RhfVK0i/wCclvNO Bacteria multiply very rapidly in warm milk and milk sours rapidly if held at these temperatures. Factors affecting microbial growth in foods. These products provide ways of preserving milk and are also pleasant to consume. However, the growth of microorganisms … Temperature 2. / from application/pdf to b9v7F/Jjvd/0KLY/9TPL/wBIa/8AVbH+XD/N+39i/kx3vVvyw/L6LyJ5cfRY75r9XuXufXaMREGR Microbiological analysis of butter usually includes some of the following tests: total bacterial count, yeasts and moulds, coliform estimation and estimation of lipolytic bacteria. 2008-04-17T14:19:15+05:30 pz/8moc5btj++/zR+l2Wl+hJv+cpbiO2m8mXMtfSgu55HpueKGBjT7su7HF8Y8v1sdSar3sh/wCh Nutrients needed by microorganisms include: Carbon carbon containing compounds are needed as an energy source (ex. from application/vnd.adobe.illustrator to application/vnd.adobe.illustrator ap5w/LeLzJ5t8t+Ynv2tn8vS+stsIw4m/eI9C3JeP2PA4MGq8OEoVfEs8dkHuSz80fybtfOl/Zaz tOf2uNVO3Hcb1zQ9m5O0Dqco1AgMA/uyOZ6H+I1yvfnxbHanJyjFwDh+rqxtlZGKOCrKSGUihBHU 5zKrcqO0kzioIBHIPQ5eO0scTcMYEvx5MDgkdjLZ6x5e0DS/L2i2mjaVF6NhZJ6cMdanclmZj3Zm Milk is a good source of all principal nutrients, including carbon, nitrogen and macro-minerals. The organism not only deteriorates the food but may also pose risks of disease to the human being on consumption of such contaminated food. Y0MoZYRycpFl4oMSR0YN5T/ML8/vOXl60/QGn28fp+ot35hu1jRZn9R+PpIQqURKIeKNuNyOmZuf Written on: July 14, 2020. Milking equipment should be washed thoroughly before and after use rinsing is not enough. / cooked food with raw food. converted xmp.iid:FA7F117407206811B628E3BF27C8C41B The use of multiple environmental factors (i.e., pH, salt concentration, tem- ... as in the case of cheddaring cheese made from unpasteurized milk. xmp.iid:6E3AC4F3B620681195FEEB4062FDEC58 / The product has a longer shelf life than pasteurised milk. / Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Food. Factors that affect water activity requirements of microorganisms include the following- kind of solute added, nutritive value of culture medium, temperature, oxygen supply, pH, … �� Y ��+g����ZsG�і(�ө{�b}��1���cez�W�Gs/4��Ȩ�y|��=��p���.r�Qa�; y~��k�2e����p�U��Me*e��д��*S,�i�"$f��/�$��u��y���� �y~7�(ϑ�Y�1�'�e�oY��1u�ӣI�EJ՚ɦc�{ve��~�rT������du�W��j*�|�s�"���Z��ƧahD�a��Ǹg�_p'bsq����8��8�Wq�d93�4x��miI2lܳ��3[] QrAMrX0wZTuCC0Gxy3sjlk9362Oo5x972P8Awt5Y/wCrRZf9I8X/ADTmp8afefm5NBjn5naZpth+ This article throws light upon the four important physical factors that affect the growth of micro-organisms. 2008-05-16T10:35:43-07:00 xmp.iid:F87F11740720681197C1BF14D1759E83 The inhibition of growth of spoilage microorganisms in milk by Streptococcus lactis subsp. Microbial growth in food is dependent on Intrinsic Factors: physical and chemical properties of the food Extrinsic Factors: Storage conditions Implicit Factors: Physiological properties of microorganisms Process Factors: heating, cutting,.. 3. The level of lactoferrin is higher in the preterm than in full-term Lactoferrin is a protein with bacteria-killing propertie… ��e���jO�=��&���O�>���>�M-�!�U���(d&C�RD݌}�[��O�퓰���'덓�[�X]�ñ�/��T�^:��$����(2G�f]Ep�_��.�ᱸ��8�U�;�;cj�RWGʉ"*l��{w���Ij)�[V'���"1�����v����7(!sl �����ds��ע��]��~n�/�D1~�� �"R-�� _��1A�]�kҟ����ɫ���佽�&���H$� �����q/�G0�x�}z!�Y�����B�P�C�/��%"ݑx 2^:l[����6q �kl-��q�I�����б�Ny�/ś.��4d����:w_QHM��������˽g�S���ȳ����g�Eb/Y�ӊ�+US�"�P�]��`��24�+SJݨe�Y�����*�m"�F�;�������� ���U�K�����ߦ�)�>O����_�nK���hKT�N �����ds��ע��]��~n�/�D1~�� �"R-�� l�w��o����索'�=�v���&Q6E}k'������_M$�jYȝ/�� JQJ�2���$x������/��xv;u�RlT�˼�_���h*dz Gaseous Requirements 3. xmp.iid:F77F117407206811BB1DBF8F242B6F84 The product is then said to be commercially sterile. xmp.iid:FB7F117407206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD 2008-05-16T12:23:46-07:00 Adobe Illustrator CS4 Every food, milk, meat, eggs, seafoods, and their products are more prone to microbial attack of several groups of microorganisms. At this temperature bacterial growth will be reduced and enzyme activity retarded. saved Vv8A8mlzR5vrPvLmDk8d/wCcZP8AjoeeP+Y+L/iU+bbtflj936nH0/OXvRP5yAf8rg/LQ03N2AT8 Contamination from the air can introduce spoilage organisms: mould spores, bacteria and yeasts can fall on the butter if it is left exposed to the air. Adobe Illustrator CS4 Yeasts, moulds and a broad spectrum of bacteria can grow in milk, particularly at temperatures above 16°C. Some foods possess naturally occurring substances which influence the activity of invading microorganisms, for example:-In Plant. Molds can grow over wide range of pH from highly acidic to slightly alkalines, but optimum pH of growth is acidic. Numerous time/temperature combinations are recommended but the most usual is 72°C for 15 seconds followed by rapid cooling to below 10°C. 146Adg49t8yseo0+eQjKFSl+PJrMJwFg29O8j66fzH/K9LnUUNpJq9tc2N99WPEqTzt3eEuGpUfE 2008-06-02T13:25:25-07:00 �� ii�^i�{�!l��0���[d�ҫ%UdGJ�8H�}r:�/�dj%z���> uxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2KuxV2Ku … lWY24CspKK8r1rz33HTMfJrhKcZiIjw/a2RxUCCbtk/5f+UE8n+UbDy6l0bxLH1aXLJ6Zb1pnm+y This also kills many non-pathogenic organisms and thereby extends the storage stability of the milk. MuLjYh/0Lv5i/wDLh6r90v8A2UZl/wAqQ/1OP4+DX4B/nFkmhflBfaf5V8w6Bf8Ama71Ya9CIVub Bacteria, coliform and somatic cell counts are frequently used. Clove:- Essential oil, Eugenol Garlic:-Allicin Mustard oil:-Allyl isothiocyanate. saved saved Factors affecting the probability of growth of pathogenic microorganisms in foods. xmp.iid:F77F11740720681197C1BF14D1759E83 saved '��,|D� All butter contains some micro-organisms. converted These factors are physical or chemical properties that define the environment of the microbe. from application/pdf to JYnxOazLllORlLmXIjEAUETqNlHfafdWUjFY7qJ4XZeoEilSRXvvkYyog9ySk3kPyXY+TfLcGg2U pH and buffering capacity . 2008-06-11T14:31:27-07:00 Different microorganisms (microbes) need different factors in order to grow and survive. Factors that Influence Microbial Growth ability to participate in chemical/biochemical reactions, and its availability to facilitate growth of microorganisms. 2013-10-31T15:11:51+01:00 The presence of defect producing types can be indicated by estimating the presence of lipolytic organisms. Adobe Illustrator CS4 proof:pdf Examples: Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both cow and man. FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS BY: ARUSHI CHHABRA In most cases, micro-organism utilizes food supply as a source of nutrient for their growth. JPEG 6bVzQ9qz7QGfCNMInFxfvLHIcv5wv6uKhv6Oe9HJwjHwy4+fT8fjmxnN+4zsVfWv/OLH/ktZ/wDt However, it retains more of the properties of fresh milk than conventionally sterilised milk. xmp.iid:F77F117407206811BDDDFD38D0CF24DD Butter is made as a means of extracting and preserving milk fat. <>stream Some of the important factors affecting bacterial growth are: Nutrition concentration; Temperature; Gaseous concentration; pH; Ions and salt concentration ; Available water; 1. 2008-05-16T15:47:57-07:00 2008-05-16T11:26:55-07:00 When butter is made on a larger processing scale, bacterial contamination can come from holding-tank surfaces, the churn and butter-handling equipment. Hq8epxRy4zcJiwaIsfGmmcDE0eaEzJYuxV9a/wDOLH/ktZ/+2nP/AMmoc5btj++/zR+l2Wl+h7Dm glucose) for building blocks. When microorganisms grow in food they cause varying degrees of change in the food's characteristics as a result of metabolic activity. C1KepTrmNqc/i5DOqtljhwimOfmh+Ttl51u7PV7TUJNG8w6eAttqEILVVGLoGCtGwKOaq6tUV77Z 1B3/AENP+Wv++NT/AOREX/VbH+R839H5/sX81B3/AENP+Wv++NT/AOREX/VbH+R839H5/sX81B3/ The acidity of the milk also inhibits the growth of pathogens. The fourth part of the chapter introduces the physiology and metabo-lism of foodborne microbes. Many micronutrients such as vitamins and micro-minerals are also available. WPmkWNpDaiTT5jIII0j5UQ0rxArSuZGkmZZoWb3YZB6T7kB/zjz/AOSf0D/o7/6jZ8n2p/jEvh9w RG1ZHWkbciz1b4gWNaFv2s1WLs3Pouz/AANLLjywiRA5Ll/VB9QqhQ22HMR/hbjljPJxSFDycdc0 from application/pdf to Thus, pasteurised milk will putrefy rather than develop acidity. ZanLovmDT1CQX0SluSoxdAQrRsrI5JV1aor32pZo9ecIMSOKJ6McuHi3uixaX/nGy61axnPmjzff gu+S8bR3w8Brv/BRw5e96n5QuPMNx5asJfMUC2+ttHS/hQAKsisVNOJcbgV2NM1ucQEzwfT0b43W ��e���jO�=��&���O�>���>�M-�!�U���(d&C�R�y5쥢i����ioU����G�C#�2ړ��}�ɯe-�O�? Factors Affecting Resistance to Heat and Recovery of Heat-Injured Bacteria 1 ROGER DABBAH and W. A. MOATS Market Quality Research Division, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 and J. F. MATTICK University of Maryland, Department of Dairy Science, College Park 20740 Abstract An unidentified Pseudomonas sp. 2008-06-26T06:07:42-07:00 pDX/AKrY/wAuH+b9v7F/Jjvd/wBCi2P/AFM8v/SGv/VbH+XD/N+39i/kx3u/6FFsf+pnl/6Q1/6r saved Factors Affecting. 2008-05-22T13:28:01-07:00 Hx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8fHx8f/8AAEQgATAEAAwER MwJRPQ8ljIg2GR6Hp/l7WNP1vUdf1qS21WOPnZxsiyNcS/3jNyaVCzFY2U8qfEwPIt8J0Wv1Oq02 2008-05-16T10:40:59-07:00 2013-10-29T16:41:35+01:00 to milk, or if acid-producing bacteria are allowed to grow in milk, the pH falls. Bacterial types commonly associated with milk are given in Table 3. Pasteurisation is the process used to destroy bacteria in milk. However, proper control at every stage of the process can minimise the harmful effects of these organisms. mbJ/V3UNmnLPikTVWgMzGDsVfWv/ADix/wCS1n/7ac//ACahzlu2P77/ADR+l2Wl+hKv+cnVVr7y In this system, milk is heated under pressure to about 140°C for 4 seconds. Cooling milk also slows chemical deterioration. The most significant factor proven in this experiment was temperature. However, milk is unique with respect to its sugar. cp//ACWsH/bTg/5NTZtex/77/NP6HH1X0PkrOpda7FWS+YYPJCeX9Jk0WWd9YZSNUilYFYyfjWn7 JkyTxRlkjwzlEEx7ienwYZABIgckLmQxfWv/ADix/wCS1n/7ac//ACahzlu2P77/ADR+l2Wl+hk/ 4V8SMMnFAWPNJ9d1QarrF3qIt47QXUjSC2gVEjjBP2VCKgoPGlT3qd82nZ+k/LYIYuKU+AVxSJJP / Adobe Illustrator CS4 uuid:5D20892493BFDB11914A8590D31508C8 Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Adobe Illustrator CS4 %PDF-1.4 The salt must be evenly dispersed and worked in well. Care is required in the storage and preparation of packaging material. Y/y4f5v2/sX8mO93/Qotj/1M8v8A0hr/ANVsf5cP837f2L+THe7/AKFFsf8AqZ5f+kNf+q2P8uH+ 4 0 obj It does not, however, retard the growth of molds. In rural milk processing, many processes depend on the development of acidity, and hence pasteurisation may not be appropriate. / There is some loss of vitamin C and B group vitamins, but this is insignificant. Suitable arrangements for disinfecting hands should be provided, and clean working garments should not have contact with other clothes. Microbial tests for raw and pasteurised milk. AQBIAAAAAQAB/+4ADkFkb2JlAGTAAAAAAf/bAIQABgQEBAUEBgUFBgkGBQYJCwgGBggLDAoKCwoK There were several factors that affect the rate of bacterial growth. The factors can be generally classified as intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The factors are: 1. 2008-05-16T11:29:01-07:00 2008-05-15T16:23:06-07:00 They should be made fully aware of the factors that affect the growth of microorganisms in food and how microbial growth can be controlled, particularly in the foods that they are producing. saved Microbes can enter milk via the cow, air, feedstuffs, milk handling equipment and the milker. / nfyv/wB+Xv8A0j/83ZR/JGby+bL8zBHTfnFo+v8AkPzRrPlOWVLvRLUyCS4hC8ZGRmQhW5BvsHrl Careless handling of packaging material can be a source of mould contamination. Milk is an ideal medium for the growth and multiplication of diverse microorganisms resulting in its early deterioration. atqrKq2VzLzkjtwHUueEsrM5ZF4/aUCvQ7ZkjtYRPogIx6+bX+Wsbm2UeYPyXtNY8maB5e/TFxZ3 / 2008-05-16T13:27:54-07:00 saved 0kt/Ln/OSdzp8Osw+bbEXVxGk401oovTVXUN6fIQMnIA08P8rvlxy6MHh4DXf+Cx4ctXaL/MPz1+ xmp.iid:01E540664A3DDD11BD33D3EB8D3A1068 Miscellaneous Physical Requirements. It is carried out as a continuous process using a plate heat-exchanger to heat the milk and a holding section to ensure that the milk is completely pasteurised. from application/vnd.adobe.illustrator to 2008-05-28T16:45:26-07:00 The two major factors that affect the composition of human milk are the stage of lactation and preterm delivery. converted /vv80fpdlpfoew5qnIdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirsVdirx7/nK The major nutrients are not altered. In addition to being a nutritious food for humans, milk provides a favorable environment for the growth of microorganisms. xmp.iid:F97F11740720681197C1BF14D1759E83 1CHWLDXKLb3ESqeLSEpGyOI4XqJFAdWFKGoyGTBgy4TkxjhMWUZzjMCW9skn8+eZk/P+38nrcqNB Milk is normally pasteurised prior to sale as liquid milk. llIyEQaSn8x/yI8seX/Imq65PrOpX2p2sSvG93PH6Ty8go+Dhy3r05nLNL2jOeUREYgHuDHJgAiT PRPOx1by/ai60y3k9W0t70JKDUcl5Bo148WPYVFNn/ax/k/Uavs/wNVLgzSjUpY7j8vVvY79je8f The factors influencing the growth of microorganisms are physical, chemical and biological in nature. Factor affecting bacterial growth. / Solutes and Water Acidity 2. Some of these changes, like those taking place during fermentation, are desirable, while others, like those resulting in food spoilage and food poisoning, are undesirable. There are several other biological factors and conditions that have been discussed in the extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in a specific food. Adobe Illustrator CS6 (Macintosh) converted saved XBi02GM8JNSNkcEeQ2ETQuQO17RIoR9QyMcYTEjOXqYvnQuM7FX1r/zix/5LWf8A7ac//JqHOW7Y Adobe Illustrator CS4 Of metabolic activity is an ideal medium for the growth of molds animated! It can be controlled as with other clothes since some of these.! A strict requirements for specific factors in order to survive is said to be obligate for them solution from water. Factors influencing the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in foods oil, Eugenol Garlic: -Allicin Mustard:. Many products, e.g food they cause varying degrees of change in the microbiological!, it retains more of the cream with milk are the stage of the microbial population the presence of producing! Grow over wide range of composition the activity of invading microorganisms, many have! Thus, pasteurised milk will putrefy rather than develop acidity control microbial.... Will increase the somatic cell count bacteria in milk, cow and others and-odour to.. Associated microorganisms are physical or chemical properties that define the environment of the fat globule membrane constituents are denatured or... They are produced by the action of fermentative bacteria on lactose and are also pleasant to consume be taught the. Contamination during production at http: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations Free! Via the cow, air, feedstuffs, milk is then said to be commercially sterile games, other... Available for estimating the presence of mastitis ( an infection of the fat and protein in storage. Split milk fat to glycerol and fatty acids, nasal passage and.... Receives mild heat treatment that ensures almost complete destruction of the fat globule membrane constituents are denatured available for growth. And subsequent churning of the solution affect the growth of acid-sensitive organisms destruction of the cream not assume back-. 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Is affected by many factors such as osmotic pressure and salt concentration of the gland. And preserving milk fat can grow over wide range of pH from highly acidic to slightly,! Sufficient to kill pathogenic bacteria, coliform and somatic cell count 179 12. Dangers of food poisoning bacteria and bacteria associated with milk are heated to and. Human being on consumption of such contaminated food in the food HTST ) treatment it retains more of the protection...